Capital Punishment

aka: Death Penalty

The death penalty was practiced in Arkansas even before the state was admitted to the Union in 1836. According to the Arkansas News, “during the American Revolution several members of the garrison at Arkansas Post were convicted of having plotted on behalf of the English to massacre all the soldiers at the Post. They were executed by a firing squad in New Orleans.” These executions mark the first recorded death sentences for crimes committed in Arkansas. The Arkansas criminal code provides for the death penalty or life without parole upon conviction of capital murder or treason. Those convicted of rape were also subject to the death penalty until January 1, 1976, prior to the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in Coker v. Georgia that a death sentence for rape of an adult woman was disproportionate to the crime and violated the Eighth Amendment.

The first Arkansas penitentiary was authorized in 1838. Shortly thereafter, the state purchased ninety-two acres for $12 per acre and authorized $80,500 to construct the prison. It began operation in 1841 on the site of the current Arkansas State Capitol, a location that was then west of the Little Rock (Pulaski County) city limits. Convict labor was used to build it. There were relatively few beds because most of the convicts were leased to plantation owners, farmers, manufacturers, mining companies, and others who were responsible for their housing, food, healthcare, and security. The system not only paid for the cost of the penitentiary but also provided a surplus to the state treasury most years. However, over the years, a number of scandals arose over the treatment of convict labor. The most egregious was in 1880 when twenty percent of the convicts died while on contract. The practice finally ended in 1913, when the Arkansas General Assembly undertook a penitentiary reform effort. Another aspect of this reform was the centralization of executions at the State Penitentiary in Little Rock. Previously, prisoners were sentenced to death in the county where they were convicted. The law specified that electrocution was to be used to carry out the death sentence.

Isaac Parker, a two-term Republican congressman from Missouri, was appointed by President Ulysses S. Grant as the federal judge for the Western District of Arkansas in 1875. The district had jurisdiction over the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). During his twenty-one-year tenure, Judge Parker tried 344 capital cases and sentenced 160 men to death by hanging. Only seventy-nine were actually hanged; the rest died in jail, had their sentences overturned on appeal, or were pardoned. Parker favored the abolition of the death penalty but felt he had to adhere strictly to the letter of the law.

The last execution by hanging occurred at the Paris (Logan County) jail on July 15, 1914. John Arthur Tillman had been convicted of killing his girlfriend, then putting her body in a well and filling the well with stones.

The first man to die under the new law calling for electrocution to be used was Lee Sims from Prairie County. The last prisoner to be electrocuted was John Edward Swindler on June 13, 1990. Swindler was also the first execution since 1964.

In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled capital punishment as practiced in Georgia to be unconstitutional (Furman v. Georgia), a ruling that effectively suspended capital punishment laws throughout the United States. The Arkansas Gazette reported on June 30, 1972, that “Old Sparky,” the chair used for electrocutions in Arkansas, had been found stored in a closet at Tucker Intermediate Reformatory, saying, “The diesel engine used to produce the high voltage for electrocutions is stored in the prison garage.” The death penalty was reenacted in Arkansas in 1977 after the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Gregg v. Georgia in 1976 affirmed the new procedures adopted by the State of Georgia.

In 1983, the Arkansas General Assembly adopted lethal injection as the method of execution. Anyone convicted before that law was enacted could choose electrocution or lethal injection. Charles Singleton was the last inmate with that choice. He chose lethal injection and died on January 6, 2004.

The Arkansas law provides that capital murder charges are to be tried in Circuit Court with mandatory review by the Arkansas Supreme Court. Conviction will result in one of two sentences: death by lethal injection or life in prison without possibility of parole. The trial is conducted in two phases—guilt/innocence and penalty. The jury must vote unanimously to impose the death penalty. Otherwise, the trial judge must impose life without parole.

In 1993, the criminal code was amended to create a mitigating circumstance for mental retardation in capital murder cases. The prosecutor must prove that a person with an intelligence quotient (IQ) of sixty-five or less knows the difference between right and wrong. This change in the law occurred in large part due to public reaction to the execution of Rickey Ray Rector on January 24, 1992. Apparently not understanding his situation, Rector left a piece of pecan pie from his last meal and remarked that he would eat it later, after the execution.

The governor has the power to grant clemency. Governor Winthrop Rockefeller, who declared a moratorium on executions when he took office in 1967, granted clemency to all fifteen men on death row on December 29, 1970. Clemency has been granted to a death row inmate only once since the death penalty was reestablished in 1977. Governor Mike Huckabee commuted the death sentence of Bobby Ray Fretwell on February 5, 1999. “I had rather face the anger of the people than the wrath of God,” Huckabee said of his decision.

According to Marlin Shipman, “The decade of the 1930s produced more state-sanctioned killing in Arkansas than any other decade during the twentieth century. Fifty-three men were electrocuted in the state’s electric chair.” Death row is located at the Varner SuperMax Prison south of Grady (Lincoln County).

The death penalty continues to draw support from both political parties and a majority of the citizens of Arkansas. Bill Clinton returned from campaigning in the New Hampshire Presidential Primary in 1992 in order to sign the warrant for Rickey Ray Rector’s execution. However, that support had begun to decline at the start of the twenty-first century as questions arose about fairness in regard to race or ethnicity and the possibility of executing an innocent person. In fact, the 2009 Arkansas General Assembly established a Legislative Task Force on Criminal Justice to study critical issues regarding major felonies including capital punishment.

On June 22, 2012, the Arkansas Supreme Court struck down Arkansas’s death penalty law because of a provision that said the Department of Correction could choose the drugs used in executions. The court ruled that the legislature had to set the quantity and type of drugs used. Due to a shortage of one of the drugs used in lethal injection, sodium thiopental, and legal challenges surrounding the execution methods, Arkansas had not executed an inmate since 2005. The Arkansas General Assembly passed a new death penalty law in 2013; it faced immediate legal challenges but was ruled constitutional by the Arkansas Supreme Court on March 19, 2015. In August 2015, Attorney General Leslie Rutledge announced that the state had purchased drugs to carry out the death penalty, and on September 9, 2015, Governor Asa Hutchinson set the execution dates for eight inmates. However, Circuit Judge Wendell Griffen soon thereafter issued an order temporarily halting the executions in the wake of a lawsuit seeking information on the drugs the state had obtained.

On June 23, 2016, the Arkansas Supreme Court upheld the state law keeping confidential information on lethal injection drugs. Governor Hutchinson later scheduled eight executions to occur within a ten-day period starting on April 17, 2017, on account of the imminent expiration of the state’s supply of midazolam, a drug that has been employed in executions. The compressed schedule drew criticism from across the nation, including from a group of former and current corrections officials; also at issue was the state’s intended use of midazolam as the initial sedative, given that the drug had failed to render condemned prisoners completely unconscious in previous executions. The means by which the state had acquired the drugs for execution also proved controversial—one supplier later filed suit against the state, insisting it had been misled as to the intended use of the drug, while the state’s supply of potassium chloride was “donated” anonymously in a parking lot. Various court rulings canceled the first three executions scheduled for April 2017. However, on April 20, the state executed Ledell Lee after the U.S. Supreme Court denied his last appeals, marking the first execution in Arkansas since 2005. On April 24, 2017, the state executed Jack Jones and Marcel Williams, the first time any state had carried out a double execution since 2010. Kenneth Williams was executed three days later.

On November 1, 2018, the Arkansas Supreme Court declared unconstitutional a law that allowed the state prison director the authority to determine the competency of death-row inmates prior to execution. On June 1, 2020, U.S. District Judge Kristine Baker rejected a claim, filed on behalf of seventeen inmates, that use of midazolam violated the constitutional ban on cruel and unusual punishment. On August 16, 2022, the Eighth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals affirmed Baker’s ruling.

The following chart of those executions conducted at the county level is adapted with permission from the Winter 2020 issue of the Arkansas Family Historian. The original chart only went through 1899, and so this version remains a work in progress, especially for those years between 1899 and 1913, when executions started to be carried out at the state level. Some events on this chart, indicated by an asterisk (*), are considered by scholars as more akin to lynchings than to executions.

 

NAME RACE SEX CRIME EXECUTION DATE COUNTY OF EXECUTION
DICKINSON, THOMAS WHITE MALE MURDER ? 1820 ?
STRICKLAND, JACOB WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY MAY 31 1828 PULASKI
MCKEE, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER MAY 30 1837 PULASKI
BROWN, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER OCT 19 1838 POPE
RICHMOND, JOHN* WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 31 1839 WASHINGTON
BARNES, JAMES* WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 31 1839 WASHINGTON
TURNER, JACK* WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 31 1839 WASHINGTON
BAILEY, WILLIAM* WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 1839 WASHINGTON
FRANK BLACK MALE RAPE DEC 22 1843 CRAWFORD
DENNIS BLACK MALE RAPE DEC 22 1843 CRAWFORD
BURNETT, CRAWFORD WHITE MALE MURDER NOV 8 1845 WASHINGTON
BURNETT, LAVINIA WHITE FEMALE MURDER NOV 8 1845 WASHINGTON
BURNETT, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 26 1845 WASHINGTON
DOGHEAD, GLORY NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER FEB 4 1853 BENTON
WHITE, BUCK NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER ? 1854 FRANKLIN
Unknown BLACK ? MURDER ? 1856 WASHINGTON
BEARD, WILLIS WHITE MALE ? MAY 1857 CRAWFORD
BASS, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY ? 1858 ?
LEWIS, DAVID S. WHITE MALE MURDER APR 29 1859 INDEPENDENCE
COSGROVE, CHARLES WHITE MALE MURDER JUN 10 1859 PULASKI
DAVIS, ROBERT WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 18 1861 CRAWFORD
ALFRED, (STEPHENS?) BLACK MALE MURDER MAR 8 1861 WASHINGTON
DODD, DAVID O. WHITE MALE SPYING-ESPION-AGE JAN 8 1864 PULASKI
EARNEST, JEREMIAH WHITE MALE MURDER MAR 18 1864 PULASKI
MILLER, THOMAS JEFFERSON WHITE MALE MURDER MAR 18 1864 PULASKI
COPELAND, A., J. WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 29 1864 SEBASTIAN
NORWOOD, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 29 1864 SEBASTIAN
CARY, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 29 1864 SEBASTIAN
ROWDEN, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 29 1864 SEBASTIAN
MCBROOM, ALEXANDER WHITE MALE DESERTION AND LARCENY APR 21 1865 SEBASTIAN
PATTERSON, FRANKLIN WHITE MALE MURDER MAY 5 1865 SEBASTIAN
ROSS, DAVE ? MALE MURDER SEP 3 1869 ?
MCCURTAIN, AMOS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUN 24 1870 CRAWFORD
GRUNDY, JERDON BLACK MALE MURDER FEB 3 1871 ?
ROSEBOROUGH, jOHN BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 10 1871 CRITTENDEN
HARRIS, HENRY BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 10 1871 CRITTENDEN
BREWER, BROWN BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 2 1873 WHITE
CHILDERS, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER AUG 15 1873 SEBASTIAN
YOUNG, WOLF NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 10 1873 SEBASTIAN
TUN-NE-HA NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 10 1873 SEBASTIAN
SIX, KILLER NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 10 1873 SEBASTIAN
WATKINS, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER APR 27 1873 WHITE
BILLY, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 3 1874 SEBASTIAN
POINTER, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 3 1874 SEBASTIAN
FILMORE, ISAAC NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 3 1874 SEBASTIAN
WALLACE, SIDNEY WHITE MALE MURDER APR 13 1874 JOHNSON
IMPRON, MCCLISH NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 15 1875 SEBASTIAN
EVANS, DANIEL WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 3 1875 SEBASTIAN
MOORE, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 3 1875 SEBASTIAN
WHITTINGTON, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY SEP 3 1875 SEBASTIAN
FOOY, SAM NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY SEP 3 1875 SEBASTIAN
MANKILLER, SMOKER NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 3 1875 SEBASTIAN
CAMPBELL, EDWARD BLACK MALE MURDER SEP 3 1875 SEBASTIAN
THOMPSON, WILLIAM B. WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 17 1875 CONWAY
HAMMON, CORNELIUS ? MALE MURDER JAN 14 1876 BENTON
ISHTONUBBEE, GIBSON NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 21 1876 SEBASTIAN
SEELY, ISHAM NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 21 1876 SEBASTIAN
LEACH, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 21 1876 SEBASTIAN
MCGEE, ORPHEUS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 21 1876 SEBASTIAN
WILSON, AARON BLACK MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 21 1876 SEBASTIAN
JACKSON, TATE BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 1876 MONROE
PETERS, SAMUEL NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 8 1876 SEBASTIAN
SANDERS, OSEE NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 8 1876 SEBASTIAN
VALLEY, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 8 1876 SEBASTIAN
WILSON, SINKER NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 8 1876 SEBASTIAN
TRAMMELL, ALBERT BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 28 1877 NEVADA
DICKSON, GILES BLACK MALE MURDER SEP 1877 MONROE
STONE, TOM ? MALE MURDER NOV 2 1877 SALINE
EDMONDS ? MALE MURDER ? 1878 ?
LEVELS, JACOB BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 21 1878 PULASKI
ANDERSON, CLINT BLACK MALE RAPE AUG 30 1878 PULASKI
DIGGS, JAMES BLACK MALE MURDER DEC 20 1878 SEBASTIAN
POSTOAK, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER DEC 20 1878 SEBASTIAN
TAYLOR, HENRY BLACK MALE RAPE JUN 27 1879 ST FRANCIS
STEWART, HENRI WHITE MALE MURDER AUG 29 1879 SEBASTIAN
WILEY, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER AUG 29 1879 SEBASTIAN
LANCASTER, ROBERT WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 12 1879 INDEPEND-ENCE
WHITLEY, MARCUS WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 26 1879 RANDOLPH
KEMP, JOSEPH WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 3 1879 SHARP
HOWARD, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER FEB 27 1880 FRANKLIN
FORD, L. L. WHITE MALE MURDER MAY 28 1880 CRITTENDEN
JACKSON, ? BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 28 1880 CRITTENDEN
EDMONDS, THOMAS WHITE MALE MURDER MAY 28 1880 FRANKLIN
BINNS, WILLIAM BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 11 1880 BRADLEY
SANFORD, GEORGE BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 9 1880 MISSISSIPPI
MCKEE, RICHARD BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 9 1880 MISSISSIPPI
HUEY, CAL WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 13 1881 MISSISSIPPI
BENNETT, RUSH BLACK MALE MURDER FEB 4 1881 UNION
DENNISON, HENRY BLACK MALE MURDER APR 15 1881 PRAIRIE
WHITE, HAYES BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 10 1881 CRITTENDEN
GREEN, ISAAC BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 15 1881 LEE
HARDIN, JOHN BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 15 1881 LEE
REEVES, WILLIS BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 15 1881 CRAWFORD
GREEN, GEORGE BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 22 1881 SEBASTIAN
BROWN, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 9 1881 SEBASTIAN
MANLEY, ABNER NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 9 1881 SEBASTIAN
MANLEY, AMOS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER SEP 9 1881 SEBASTIAN
MCGOWAN, PATRICK WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 9 1881 SEBASTIAN
PADGETT, GEORGE WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 9 1881 SEBASTIAN
JONES, CHARLES* BLACK MALE ASSAULT OCT 31 1881 JOHNSON
JACKSON, BOGE BLACK MALE MURDER NOV 18 1881 ASHLEY
HALL, FRANK BLACK MALE MURDER DEC 9 1881 PULASKI
EDMUNDS, HOWARD WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 9 1881 BRADLEY
BROWN, WHIT BLACK MALE MURDER-ROBBERY FEB 24 1882 JEFFERSON
TAYLOR, LUTHER WHITE MALE MURDER APR 21 1882 CLAY
FULSOM, EDWARD ? MALE MURDER JUN 30 1882 SEBASTIAN
GARRETT, ED BLACK MALE MURDER JAN 26 1883 MILLER
WALKER, NICK BLACK MALE MURDER MAR 23 1883 PULASKI
JACOBS, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 13 1883 SEBASTIAN
MASSEY, ROBERT WHITE MALE MURDER APR 13 1883 SEBASTIAN
BLALOCK, JERRY ? MALE MURDER MAY 11 1883 JACKSON
MORTON, JACK ? MALE MURDER MAY 25 1883 PHILLIPS
TAYLOR, JOHN ? MALE MURDER MAY 25 1883 MONROE
YOUNG, JOSEPH BLACK MALE RAPE MAY 25 1883 LITTLE RIVER
HERNDON, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUN 22 1883 JOHNSON
JOHNSON, GOVE WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUN 22 1883 JOHNSON
JOHNSON, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUN 22 1883 JOHNSON
MCDONALD, MONROE WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUN 22 1883 JOHNSON
FINCH, WILLIAM BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 29 1883 SEBASTIAN
JOSEPH, MARTIN BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 29 1883 SEBASTIAN
TUALISTA NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUN 29 1883 SEBASTIAN
CASAT, DENO WHITE MALE MURDER AUG 17 1883 PULASKI
JOHNSON, WILLIAM BLACK MALE MURDER OCT 12 1883 DREW
UNDERWOOD, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 7 1883 YELL
WHEEZMORE, JOHN ? MALE ? ? 1884 ?
ROSE, HENRY BLACK MALE MURDER APR 4 1884 MISSISSIPPI
WRIGHT, CHARLES BLACK MALE MURDER APR 25 1884 HOWARD
TUCKER, JAMES BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 30 1884 LOGAN
WALKER, DOCK BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 29 1884 MILLER
WOMANKILLER,  JACK NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 11 1884 SEBASTIAN
THOMPSON, THOMAS WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 11 1884 SEBASTIAN
DAVIS, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 11 1884 SEBASTIAN
WILLIAMS, FRANK BLACK MALE MURDER AUG 1 1884 JEFFERSON
BOGARD, JOE BLACK MALE RAPE SEP 29 1884 PRAIRIE
CASEY, FRANK BLACK MALE MURDER NOV 26 1884 PULASKI
FRAZIER, ABE BLACK MALE MURDER NOV 28 1884 BRADLEY
MELTON, FAYETTE WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 30 1885 CLAY
JOHNSON, RUSH BLACK MALE MURDER FEB 12 1885 PULASKI
PARKER, LIGE BLACK MALE MURDER FEB 12 1885 PULASKI
PHILLIPS, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER APR 17 1885 SEBASTIAN
MOFFETT, COLUMBUS WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 24 1885 POLK
ROGERS, OLIVER BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 8 1885 COLUMBIA
JACKSON, GOODWIN BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 22 1885 MONROE
ARCENE, JAMES NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUN 26 1885 SEBASTIAN
PARCHMEAL, WILLIAM NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUN 26 1885 SEBASTIAN
DORTICH, RUFUS BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 26 1885 LEE
AKLES, DAVID BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 17 1885 PHILLIPS
BURNETT, HENRY BLACK MALE MURDER AUG 26 1885 LONOKE
PEGUES, CHRIS BLACK MALE MURDER OCT 9 1885 WOODRUFF
JACKSON, JOSEPH BLACK MALE MURDER APR 23 1886 SEBASTIAN
WASSON, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER APR 23 1886 SEBASTIAN
CARROLL, GEORGE WHITE MALE MURDER APR 30 1886 WHITE
ARMSTRONG, J., M. WHITE MALE MURDER APR 30 1886 PERRY
BARNES, LEE ? MALE MURDER-ROBBERY MAY 21 1886 POPE
JAMES, CALVIN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 23 1886 SEBASTIAN
SPROLE, LINCOLN WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 23 1886 SEBASTIAN
ROSS, KIT NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER AUG 6 1886 SEBASTIAN
ECHOLS, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 14 1887 SEBASTIAN
STEPHENS, JOHN BLACK MALE MURDER JAN 14 1887 SEBASTIAN
LAMB, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 14 1887 SEBASTIAN
ODELL, ALBERT WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 14 1887 SEBASTIAN
CHAMBERS, ABE BLACK MALE MURDER JAN 21 1887 JACKSON
JOHNSON, AMOS BLACK MALE RAPE MAR 25 1887 CRITTENDEN
MCCARTY, PATRICK WHITE MALE MURDER APR 8 1887 SEBASTIAN
HAMPTON, SILAS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JAN 7 1887 SEBASTIAN
KALIJAH, SEABORN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 7 1887 SEBASTIAN
SIMMONS, JOE BLACK MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JAN 21 1887 WOODRUFF
PETERS, ALBERT ? MALE MURDER DEC 30 1887 LEE
CROW, JACKSON NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 27 1888 SEBASTIAN
MOSS, GEORGE BLACK MALE MURDER APR 27 1888 SEBASTIAN
HILL, OWEN BLACK MALE MURDER APR 27 1888 SEBASTIAN
BOGLES, GUS BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 6 1888 SEBASTIAN
BLACKMON, HUGH BLACK MALE MURDER JAN 26 1888 ?
SMITH, RICHARD NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 25 1889 SEBASTIAN
GREEN, WILLIS BLACK MALE MURDER MAR 15 1889 CLARK
MITCHELL, ANDERSON BLACK MALE MURDER MAR 15 1889 CLARK
JONES, DANIEL BLACK MALE MURDER MAR 15 1889 CLARK
ALLEN, MALACHI BLACK MALE MURDER APR 19 1889 SEBASTIAN
MILLS, JAMES BLACK MALE MURDER APR 19 1889 SEBASTIAN
SPANIARD, JACK NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER AUG 30 1889 SEBASTIAN
WALKER, WILLIAM BLACK MALE MURDER AUG 30 1889 SEBASTIAN
AUSTIN, HARRIS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 16 1890 SEBASTIAN
BILLEE, JOHN NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JAN 16 1890 SEBASTIAN
WILLIS, THOMAS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JAN 16 1890 SEBASTIAN
JONES, JEFFERSON NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 16 1890 SEBASTIAN
GOIN, SAM NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 16 1890 SEBASTIAN
BURRIS, JIMMON NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 16 1890 SEBASTIAN
TOBLER, GEORGE ? MALE MURDER JAN 30 1890 SEBASTIAN
STANSBURY, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 9 1890 SEBASTIAN
COMPTON, BOUDINOT WHITE MALE MURDER JUN 30 1891 SEBASTIAN
WILLIAMS, ROBERT BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 15 1891 JEFFERSON
WHITE, ISOM BLACK MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUL 31 1891 PHILLIPS
BUSBY, SHEPARD WHITE MALE MURDER APR 27 1892 SEBASTIAN
BAILEY, THOMAS BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 6 1892 PULASKI
SLAUGHTER, L., D. BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 6 1892 PULASKI
SPEERS, J., E. WHITE MALE MURDER MAY 27 1892 COLUMBIA
THORNTON, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER JUN 28 1892 SEBASTIAN
BLACK, HENRY BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 28 1892 JEFFERSON
HUDSPETH, CHARLES WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 30 1892 BOONE
TATUM, LUKE BLACK MALE MURDER JAN 31 1893 OUACHITA
CALDWELL, CHARLES BLACK MALE MURDER APR 27 1893 CRAIGHEAD
DAVIS, MILLER WHITE MALE MURDER NOV 10 1893 HOWARD
BRADY, THOMAS WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 6 1894 JACKSON
MANSKER, ALBERT WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 6 1894 JACKSON
WYRICK, J., L. WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 6 1894 JACKSON
VAUGHAN, SAMUEL WHITE MALE MURDER APR 27 1894 WASHINGTON
PETTUS, PHILLIP BLACK MALE MURDER AUG 24 1894 PHILLIPS
POINTER, JOHNNY WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 24 1894 SEBASTIAN
HOLDER, LEWIS WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY NOV 2 1894 SEBASTIAN
OWNES, WILLIAM BLACK MALE MURDER ? 1895 LINCOLN
JOHNSON, ANTHONY BLACK MALE MURDER JUN 21 1895 DESHA
NEWMAN, WILLIAM WHITE MALE MURDER NOV 8 1895 VAN BUREN
DUPREE, AMOS BLACK MALE MURDER NOV 15 1895 PRAIRIE
JONES, JESSE WHITE MALE MURDER DEC 6 1895 FRANKLIN
WARD, GEORGE NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JAN 24 1896 CRAWFORD
TURNER, PRUITT BLACK MALE MURDER FEB 28 1896 CRAWFORD
GOLDSBY, CRAWFORD NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER MAR 17 1896 SEBASTIAN
ANDERSON, MARSHALL BLACK MALE MURDER APR 24 1896 HOT SPRING
ISAACS, WEBBER NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER APR 30 1896 SEBASTIAN
PEARCE, GEORGE WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 30 1896 SEBASTIAN
PEARCE, JOHN WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY APR 30 1896 SEBASTIAN
PHILLIPS, JORDAN BLACK MALE MURDER MAY 22 1896 ARKANSAS
BUCK, RUFUS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 1 1896 SEBASTIAN
DAVIS, LEWIS NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 1 1896 SEBASTIAN
DAVIS, LUCKY BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 1 1896 SEBASTIAN
JULY, MAOMI NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 1 1896 SEBASTIAN
SAMPSON, SAM NAT. AMER. MALE MURDER JUL 1 1896 SEBASTIAN
WILSON, GEORGE ? MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUL 30 1896 SEBASTIAN
CASHAREGO, JAMES WHITE MALE MURDER-ROBBERY JUL 30 1896 SEBASTIAN
HAMILTON, CHARLES WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 11 1896 LOGAN
DAVIS, JIM BLACK MALE MURDER FEB 25 1897 JEFFERSON
COX, ROBERT BLACK MALE RAPE FEB 25 1897 JEFFERSON
JOHNSON, WILLIAM BLACK MALE MURDER MAR 19 1897 ASHLEY
ROSE, ELLIS BLACK MALE MURDER JUL 7 1898 CRAIGHEAD
MILLS, LEE WHITE MALE MURDER SEP 16 1898 CLEBURNE
BRINKLEY, ALEX WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 14 1898 CONWAY
CLYBURN, CHARLES WHITE MALE MURDER AUG 5 1898 NEVADA
FLEMING, FLUKE BLACK MALE RAPE AUG 5 1898 DESHA
MUNN, CHARLES BLACK MALE MURDER-ROBBERY DEC 2 1898 PHILLIPS
MAXEY, JOHN BLACK MALE RAPE AUG 4 1899 CRAWFORD
CLARK, DOUGLAS BLACK MALE MURDER DEC 1 1899 CHICOT
FRENCH, WALTER WHITE MALE MURDER JAN 26 1900 MISSISSIPPI
ANDERSON, CHARLES BLACK MALE RAPE OCT 26 1901 PULASKI
HEMBREE, LATHE WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 26 1902 HOWARD
POE, HARRY BLACK MALE RAPE SEP 2 1910 GARLAND
SCHUMANN, CLARENCE WHITE MALE MURDER JUN 2 1913 GARLAND
TILLMAN, JOHN ARTHUR WHITE MALE MURDER JUL 15 1914 LOGAN

 

The following chart is taken from the Arkansas Department of Correction and represents those individuals executed following the state’s assumption of the duties of capital punishment.

Name Race/Sex Crime Execution Date County Where Crime Was Committed
Sims, Lee B/M Rape 9/9/1913 Prairie
King, Ed B/M Murder 12/12/1913 Ashley
Pelton, Fred B/M Rape 3/28/1914 Lincoln
Neely, Will B/M Murder 12/8/1914 Union
Hodges, Arthur W/M Murder 12/18/1914 Clark
Simms, Clay B/M Murder 3/19/1915 Desha
Hall, John B/M Murder 4/2/1915 Craighead
Owens, Walter B/M Murder 4/2/1915 Craighead
Derrick, Sam W/M Murder 7/28/1915 Monroe
Hawkins, John B/M Murder 3/13/1917 Little River
Smith, Henry B/M Murder 3/13/1917 Crittenden
Johnson, Aaron B/M Murder 6/22/1917 Desha
Diggs, Tom B/M Murder 6/22/1917 Conway
Daffron, Soloman B/M Murder 7/26/1918 Polk
Caughron, Ben W/M Murder 8/23/1918 Polk
Tobay, Vick Indian/M Murder 8/14/1920 Washington
Cooper, Charlie B/M Murder 11/19/1920 Ouachita
Reynolds, Revertia B/M Murder 4/29/1921 Lincoln
Clarke, Virgil B/M Murder 6/17/1921 Chicot
Ratcliff, Amos W/M Murder 10/14/1921 Carroll
Price, John B/M Murder 12/30/1921 Phillips
Willis James B/M Murder 3/10/1922 Drew
Richardson, Ben B/M Murder 2/2/1923 Ashley
Debord, Will W/M Murder 2/2/1923 Stone
Richardson, Duncan W/M Murder 2/22/1923 Ashley
Bullen, E W/M Murder 2/22/1923 Ashley
Sease, Herbert W/M Murder 7/27/1923 Baxter
Owens, John W/M Murder 8/24/1923 Little River
Sullivan, Joe W/M Murder 4/18/1924 Pulaski
Bettis, Will B/M Murder 6/27/1924 Crawford
Buck, Spurgeon B/M Murder 6/27/1924 Crawford
Flowers, Perk B/M Murder 6/26/1925 Columbia
Buster, Jack B/M Murder 6/26/1925 Jefferson
Kelley, J W/M Murder 11/13/1925 Pulaski
Harris, Aaron B/M Murder 1/8/1926 Ashley
Clark, Tyrus W/M Murder 1/8/1926 Benton
Edmons, Roy B/M Murder 2/5/1926 Union
Walker, Lee B/M Murder 2/5/1926 Union
Jones, Ishman B/M Murder 2/12/1926 Ouachita
Mason, Clint B/M Murder 2/12/1926 Ouachita
Canady, John B/M Murder 2/12/1926 Ouachita
Johnson, Caphus B/M Murder 2/12/1926 Ouachita
Martin, Willie B/M Murder 6/9/1926 Pulaski
Jones, Albert B/M Murder 6/9/1926 Mississippi
Dixon, Lonnie B/M Murder 6/24/1927 Pulaski
Cathey, Horace B/M Murder 9/2/1927 Monroe
Martin, Booker B/M Murder 9/2/1927 Monroe
Eutsey, Willie B/M Murder 3/30/1928 Ouachita
McKenzie, Will B/M Murder 3/30/1928 Ouachita
Brown, Simmer B/M Murder 7/10/1928 Chicot
Robinson, Pete B/M Murder 9/10/1928 Union
Evers, Ben B/M Murder 1/24/1930 Arkansas
Green, John B/M Murder 3/21/1930 Little River
Brown, Mack B/M Murder 3/21/1930 Little River
Amersoia, Alford B/M Murder 6/20/1930 Ouachita
Nolan, Bud B/M Murder 7/25/1930 Little River
Howell, W B/M Murder 8/15/1930 Crawford
Long, Eddie B/M Murder 11/14/1930 Pulaski
Davis, Willie B/M Murder 11/14/1930 Pulaski
Turnage, James B/M Murder 11/14/1930 Pulaski
Washington, George B/M Murder 11/14/1930 Pulaski
Lawson, James B/M Murder 7/31/1931 Bradley
McBryde, Louie B/M Murder 7/8/1932 Clark
Daniels, Freeling B/M Rape 11/25/1932 Miller
Hill, George B/M Rape 6/30/1933 Phillips
Williams, Woodie,/ B/M Murder 7/14/1933 Pulaski
Banks, J. B/M Murder 12/8/1933 Pulaski
McDaniels, Len,/ B/M Murder 12/8/1933 Lonoke
Butler, Ben B/M Murder 2/9/1934 Craighead
Jackson, Luther B/M Murder 5/11/1934 Pulaski
Mitchell, Purcell B/M Murder 11/2/1934 Union
Rose, Robert W/M Murder 2/23/1935 Independence
Barnes, Frank W/M Murder 3/1/1935 Mississippi
Shank, Mark B/M Murder 3/8/1935 Saline
Freeman, Tom B/M Murder 8/23/1935 Chicot
Nelson, Paul W/M Murder 9/28/1935 Jackson
Barnes, Bill W/M Murder 9/28/1935 Mississippi
Dobbs, Frank W/M Murder 11/1/1935 Saline
Hawkins, Ben B/M Murder 12/13/1935 Mississippi
Nelson, Mack B/M Murder 12/13/1935 Mississippi
House, Roy W/M Murder 10/23/1936 Garland
Turner, Dennis W/M Murder 11/6/1936 Calhoun
White, Beverly B/M Murder 12/11/1936 Drew
Smith, Willie B/M Murder 12/11/1936 Drew
McCormick, F B/M Murder 12/11/1936 Drew
Hattock, Clinton B/M Murder 4/23/1937 Calhoun
Austin, James B/M Murder 5/14/1937 Garland
Edwards, Sandy B/M Murder 9/24/1937 Hempstead
Hutto, Tom W/M Murder 9/24/1937 Union
Amos, Jessie B/M Rape 10/15/1937 Lonoke
Pigue Duncan B/M Murder 2/4/1938 Lonoke
Ware, Leroy B/M Murder 2/25/1938 Ashley
Noble, Willie B/M Murder 3/11/1938 Miller
Sims, Joe W/M Murder 3/18/1938 Saline
Brocklehurst, Lester W/M Murder 3/18/1938 Lonoke
Carter, Frank B/M Rape 6/24/1938 Crittenden
Thomas, Theo B/M Rape 6/24/1938 Crittenden
Anderson, Joe W/M Murder 3/10/1939 Garland
Dickerson, Fred W/M Murder 5/19/1939 Garland
Arnell, Fred B/M Rape 5/19/1939 Miller
Williams, Sylvester B/M Murder 6/30/1939 Jefferson
Caruthers, James B/M Rape 6/30/1939 Mississippi
Clayton, Buble B/M Rape 6/30/1939 Mississippi
Williams, Milton B/M Murder 8/18/1939 Pulaski
Charles, James B/M Murder 1/19/1940 Pulaski
Manning, Otis B/M Murder 4/12/1940 Union
Gulley, Jack B/M Murder 11/15/1940 Nevada
Dillard, James B/M Murder 12/13/1940 Desha
Mooney, John B/M Murder 1/24/1941 Woodruff
Payton, J B/M Murder 5/15/1941 Crittenden
Lewis, Percy B/M Murder 6/6/1941 Phillips
Riney, John B/M Rape 6/20/1941 Desha
Washington, John B/M Murder 10/11/1941 White
Heron, Jimmie B/M Murder 1/23/1942 Little River
Adams, Ben W/M Murder 6/5/1942 Woodruff
Jones, A B/M Murder 7/31/1942 Phillips
Luckyrado, A B/M Murder 11/20/1942 Lonoke
Allison, Stoney B/M Rape 11/20/1942 Desha
Thomas, Adolph B/M Murder 3/19/1943 Columbia
Thompson, Henry B/M Murder 8/6/1943 Cleveland
Mack, Seke B/M Murder 6/2/1944 Mississippi
Hudson, Walker B/M Murder 7/7/1944 Clark
Tacker, Jim W/M Murder 7/14/1944 Crittenden
Clingham, Levi B/M Murder 12/1/1944 Crittenden
Brown, Tony B/M Murder 3/30/1945 Mississippi
Yates, James B/M Murder 5/25/1945 Arkansas
Hall, James W/M Murder 1/4/1946 Pulaski
Riley, Willie B/M Murder 4/12/1946 Chicot
Chitwood, Elton W/M Murder 11/22/1946 Polk
Thomas, Andrew B/M Murder 11/29/1946 Jefferson
Holmes, Clifton B/M Rape 1/10/1947 Jefferson
Hodges, Albert B/M Rape 1/17/1947 Pulaski
Henley, Jeff B/M Murder 1/24/1947 Lee
Bates, Vollie W/M Murder 5/16/1947 Polk
Dukes, Lawrence B/M Murder 8/8/1947 St. Francis
Johnson, Cubie B/M Murder 8/8/1947 Pulaski
Hyde, James W/M Murder 2/13/1948 Carroll
Pugh, Edward B/M Rape 7/2/1948 Pulaski
Hilbreth, Wesley B/M Rape 1/16/1949 Phillips
Palmer, Mizell B/M Rape 6/17/1949 Phillips
Rorie, Harvie W/M Murder 7/22/1949 Jefferson
Pierce, Walter B/M Murder 12/9/1949 Chicot
Black, Thomas W/M Murder 3/10/1950 Pulaski
Needham, Hollis W/M Rape 3/17/1950 Mississippi
Smith, Robert W/M Murder 4/28/1950 Pulaski
Ezell, Matthew B/M Murder 2/23/1951 Mississippi
Ferguson, George B/M Murder 2/23/1951 Pulaski
Smith, Aubrey B/M Murder 7/27/1951 Phillips
Dorsey, Peter B/M Murder 11/23/1951 Phillips
Grays, Arthur B/M Murder 11/23/1951 Mississippi
Maxwell, Herman B/M Rape 6/6/1952 Hempstead
Wright, Wilson B/M Murder 8/1/1952 Dallas
Jenkins, Bill Indian/M Murder 5/7/1954 Garland
Scarber, Leo B/M Rape 9/21/1956 Nevada
Smith, Lawrence B/M Murder 7/24/1959 Chicot
Lee, Leo B/M Murder 9/25/1959 Pulaski
Walker, Thomas B/M Murder 10/2/1959 Crittenden
Young, William B/M Murder 10/2/1959 Mississippi
House, J B/M Murder 10/23/1959 Phillips
Hayes, Arthur B/M Murder 10/23/1959 Mississippi
Boone, Roger B/M Murder 5/13/1960 Miller
Moore, James B/M Murder 5/13/1960 Miller
Bryd, Willie B/M Murder 5/20/1960 Miller
Boyd, James B/M Murder 5/20/1960 Miller
Leggett, Emmett W/M Murder 9/16/1960 Pulaski
Nail, William W/M Murder 9/16/1960 Jefferson
Moore, Lawrence B/M Murder 10/28/1960 Crittenden
Bracy, John B/M Murder 10/28/1960 Chicot
Fields, Charles W/M Rape/Murder 1/24/1964 Jefferson
Swindler, John W/M Cap/Murder 6/18/1990 Sebastian
Simmons, Ronald G. W/M Cap/Murder 6/25/1990 Franklin
Rector, Ricky Ray B/M Cap/Murder 1/24/1992 Faulkner
Hill, Steven Douglas W/M Cap/Murder 5/7/1992 Pulaski
Pickens, Charles E. B/M Cap/Murder 5/11/1994 Prairie & Arkansas
Whitmore, Jonas W/M Cap/Murder 5/11/1994 Scott & Montgomery
Clines, Hoyt W/M Cap/Murder 8/3/1994 Benton
Richley, Darryl V. W/M Cap/Murder 8/3/1994 Benton
Holmes, James W/M Cap/Murder 8/3/1994 Benton
Snell, Richard W/M Cap/Murder 4/19/1995 Miller
Fairchild, Barry Lee B/M Cap/Murder 8/31/1995 Lonoke
Parker, William Frank W/M Cap/Murder 8/8/1996 Benton
Wainright, Kirk B/M Cap/Murder 1/8/1997 Nevada
Ruiz, Paul W/M Cap/Murder 1/8/1997 Logan
Denton, Earl Van W/M Cap/Murder 1/8/1997 Logan
Perry, Eugene W/M Cap/Murder 8/6/1997 Sebastian
Henderson, Wilburn W/M Cap/Murder 7/8/1998 Sebastian
Cox, Johnie Michael W/M Cap/Murder 2/16/1999 White
Pruett, Marion A. W/M Cap/Murder 4/12/1999 Crawford
Willett, Alan W/M Cap/Murder 9/8/1999 Johnson
Gardner, Mark W/M Cap/Murder 9/8/1999 Sebastian
Riggs, Christina W/F Cap/Murder 5/2/2000 Pulaski
Johnson, David B/M Cap/Murder 12/20/2000 Pulaski
Smith, Clay King W/M Cap/Murder 5/8/2001 Jefferson
Noel, Riley Dobi B/M Cap/Murder 7/9/2003 Pulaski
Singleton, Charles B/M Cap/Murder 1/6/2004 Ashley
Nance. Eric R W/M Cap/Murder 11/29/2005 Hot Spring
Lee, Ledelle B/M Cap/Murder 4/20/2017 Pulaski
Jones, Jack W/M Cap/Murder 4/24/2017 White
Williams, Marcel B/M Cap/Murder 4/24/2017 Pulaski
Williams, Kenneth B/M Cap/Murder 4/27/2017 Lincoln

 

For additional information:
“Arkansas.” Death Penalty Information Center. https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/state-and-federal-info/state-by-state/arkansas (accessed May 13, 2022).

Atkins, Jerry. Hangin’ Times in Fort Smith: A History of Executions in Judge Parker’s Court. Little Rock: Butler Center Books, 2012.

Bayless, Garland E. “The Arkansas Penitentiary under Democratic Control, 1874–1896.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 34 (Autumn 1975): 195–213.

Brown, Robbie. “Arkansas Court Upends Death Penalty.” New York Times, June 23, 2012. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/23/us/arkansas-justices-strike-down-death-penalty.html?_r=1 (accessed May 13, 2022).

Butler, Virgil. “The Murder of Deputy Sheriff Wheeler and the Trial of His Killer, Robert Rose.” Independence County Chronicle 1 (October 1959): 29–36.

Bynum, John. “Case Notes on State of Arkansas vs. Ronald Gene Simmons.” Pope County Historical Association Quarterly 28 (March 1994): 29–38.

“Capital Punishment Executions in Arkansas, 1820–1899.” Arkansas Family Historian 58 (Winter 2020): 4–11.

“The Case of Lee Barnes, the Last Man Hanged in Pope County.” Pope County Historical Journal 42 (December 2008): 16–25.

Crosley, Clyde. Unfolding Misconceptions: A Study of the Arkansas Prison System, 1836–1986. Arlington, TX: Liberal Arts Press, 1986.

Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of Capital Punishment. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO Inc., 1998.

“The Hanging of Robert Lancaster.” Independence County Chronicle 8 (April 1972): 42–54.

Huddleston, Duane. “The Execution of David S. Lewis Batesville—April 29, 1859.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (July 1974): 9–12.

Jackson, Bruce. Killing Time: Life in the Arkansas Penitentiary. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.

“Joe Kemp Hanged in 1879 for Hulsey Murder in 1869.” Independence County Chronicle 9 (October 1967): 42–50.

Koon, David. “In Matters of Life and Death.” Arkansas Times, November 5, 2015, pp. 14–18, 20–22. Online at http://www.arktimes.com/arkansas/in-matters-of-life-and-death/Content?oid=4154017 (accessed May 13, 2022).

Leflar, Robert A. “Arkansas Criminal Law Reform Movement in 1934–36.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 5 (Spring 1946): 1–25.

Neal, Jas. P. “The First Legal Execution in Washington County.” Flashback 6 (January 1956): 32–35.

Palmer, Louis J., Jr. Encyclopedia of Capital Punishment in the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, 2001.

Ringer, Andrea. “Arkansas and the Death Penalty: Responses to Governor Winthrop Rockefeller’s Commutation of Fifteen Death Sentences in 1970.” MA thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2012.

———. “‘Purely Personal and Philosophical’: Gov. Winthrop Rockefeller’s Death Sentence Commutations.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 74 (Summer 2015): 130–146.

Rosenberg, Jacob. “‘Synthetic Civility’: Why Arkansas Plans to Kill Eight Men in 11 Days.” Arkansas Times, April 6, 2017, pp. 14–19. Online at http://www.arktimes.com/arkansas/why-arkansas-plans-to-kill-eight-men-in-11-days/Content?oid=5989357 (accessed May 13, 2022).

Shipman, Marlin. “Arkansas Men and Media Celebrities: Arkansas Newspaper Coverage of Condemned Delta Defendants in the 1930s.” Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies 31 (August 2000): 110–124.

Thrasher, Christopher, and Guy Lancaster. “Sympathy for Devils: Race, Insanity, and Contention in Garland County’s Two Local Executions.” The Record 2022: 4.1–4.30.

Titsworth, Elizabeth. “The Last Hanging in Arkansas.” Wagon Wheels 12 (Spring 1992): 23–37.

Urwin, Cathy Kunzinger. Agenda for Reform: Winthrop Rockefeller as Governor of Arkansas, 1967–1971. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1991.

Wyatt, Ralph. “The Murder of Sheriff Jeff D. Morgan; Trial and Execution of his Killer.” Independence County Chronicle 2 (April 1961): 14–24.

David L. Rickard
Little Rock, Arkansas

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