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Entry Category: Zoology - Starting with H


Haemogregarines are protist parasites that belong to the Phylum Apicomplexa, Class Conoidasida, Order Eucoccidiorina, and Suborder Adeleorina, and include the following seven families: Adeleidae, Dactylosomatidae, Haemogregarinidae, Hepatozoidae, Karyolysidae, Klossiellidae, and Legerellidae. There are two major genera, Haemogregarina and Hepatozoon, in addition to several minor ones, including Babesiosoma, Bartazoon, Cyrilia, Dactylosoma, Desseria, Hemolivia, and Karyolysus. As a group, these parasites are cosmopolitan in their range of infected hosts (such as turtles, crocodiles, birds, reptiles, and mammals) and geographic distribution. In general, haemogregarines sensu lato (meaning, in a broad sense) are elongate to fusiform ovoidal organisms that occur within the erythrocytes (red blood cells) of various animals, mostly poikilothermic vertebrates (animals whose internal temperatures vary widely). They form a group of diverse …

Harris, Ernest James

Ernest James Harris was an accomplished entomologist known for his work on breeding Biosteres arisanus, a species of wasp that parasitizes fruit fly eggs. Thanks to the work done by Harris, B. arisanus has been bred on a large scale for the purposes of pest eradication. More than twenty nations have adopted use of the “Harris strain” of the wasp for fruit fly eradication. Harris was inducted into the Arkansas Black Hall of Fame in 1999. Ernest J. Harris was born on May 24, 1928. His parents had a farm in North Little Rock (Pulaski County), where Harris’s interest in insects first developed. After graduation, he attended Arkansas AM&N (now the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff). There, he majored …


aka: Daddy Long-Legs
aka: Granddaddy Long-Legs
Harvestmen belong to the Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Chelicerata, Class Arachnida, and Order Opiliones. They represent the third most diverse order in Arachnida. The order Opiliones includes five suborders as follows: Cyphophthalmi, Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, Laniatores, and Tetrophthalmi. They are often referred to as “daddy long-legs.” They are found throughout the world (except Antarctica), and there are over 6,650 species. Their common name is derived from the fact that they are common during the harvesting season. They are traditionally akin with the Order Acari (ticks and mites) or the Novogenuata (the Scorpiones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Solifugae); however, others suggest the Opiliones forms a clade with the scorpions and two smaller orders. As such, they are considered the sister group of scorpions. In addition, …


aka: True Bugs
Hemipterans, or true bugs, belong to the Phylum Arthropoda, Superclass Hexapoda, Class Insecta, Order Hemiptera, and four suborders: Auchenorrhyncha, Coleorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Heteroptera. Hemiptera is the largest order of hemimetabolous insects (those not undergoing complete metamorphosis), although male scale insects (Coccoidea) do undergo a form of complete metamorphosis. The number of species in the order is about 75,000, with a great diversity of forms, including aphids, cicadas, leafhoppers, planthoppers, and shield bugs. The three largest families of Heteroptera are Miridae (plant bugs), Lygaeidae (seed bugs), and Pentatomidae (stink bugs). The largest family, Miridae, contains major insect pests and predatory groups that can be used as biological control agents. Although hemipterans inhabit a wide variety of habitats, most are generally terrestrial, …


aka: Clupeids
Herrings (Order Clupeiformes) belong to a large family (Clupeidae) of about 200 species within fifty-four genera of cosmopolitan ray-finned fishes that are mostly marine; a few inhabit freshwater, and some are anadromous—that is, they migrate up rivers from saltwater habitats for purposes of spawning. The family includes herrings, menhadens, sardines, and shads. Most herrings are small fishes, generally being less than 300 mm (12 in.), but some may reach 750 mm (30 in.). Many are valuable food fishes and are collected for production of fish meal and oil, protein concentrate, and fertilizer. Some commercially important species include Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) found in the north Atlantic, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and Atlantic menhaden (Brevortia tyrannus). In the fossil record, clupeid …


aka: Ants
aka: Bees
aka: Wasps
Hymenopterans belong to the Phylum Arthropoda, Subphylum Labiata, Superclass Hexapoda, Class Insecta, and Order Hymenoptera. It is a large order of insects with over 150,000 described species comprising the sawflies, woodwasps, ichneumonids, chalcids, wasps, bees, and ants. In addition, there are over 2,000 extinct taxa. The order ranks third in the top five orders of insects in terms of total number of species. Many examples of this order are found in Arkansas, including the invasive fire ant. The Hymenoptera are divided into two suborders: the Symphyta (which have no waist) and the Apocrita (which have a narrow waist). Symphytans include the horntails, sawflies, and parasitic wood wasps. They have an unconstricted junction between the thorax and abdomen and a serrated …